Thoughts on economics and liberty

Tag: Reservations/ Affirmative Action

Caste worship (and rejection of merit) is taking India down the gurgler

A commentator named "Bharat" provided a brief comment which linked to more details on his blog. I went through his blog post and believe it deserves a separate discussion. Bharat raises some very important points about caste discrimination.
 
Bharat's article is extensive and I wish it had been better edited, but the points Bharat makes are ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.
 
India runs a SERIOUSLY obnoxious system which is taking it down FURTHER on the path of mediocrity.
 
Instead of becoming the Sone ki Chidiya of the world, India is fast becoming a Gobar ka dher.

== EXTRACT ==

Understanding, what is caste and how to remove it
 
While my travel back to my home institute after giving seminar in a state of art research facility of Japan. I got news that Indian politician are going to introduce promotion bill for SC/ST  (so called Dalit of India). I was depressed by this news, I started thinking the difference between India (the still developing country even after lot of resources) and Japan (the most advance country even after having nil resources).
 
“What is caste?” I never really understood the idea that Indian caste is rigid. Do they really know what a caste is? Let me ask them few questions:
 
1)      How many of intellectual people (who go and boast about dalit treatment) let a dirty poor person (dirty because he is doing things without any proper clothes and have not much money to wear gloves, dress and get soap and detergent) enter their home and let them sit on their expensive sofas. 
 
2)      How many politician will eat from the hand of the person who clean toilets ?
 
3)      How many Congress people will let a son of sweeper to be their head of youth wing instead of the son of the famous stupid ruler family?    
 
4)      How many people will marry their daughter to their gardener or driver?
 
5)      How many people will sit to a guy who smell bad due to the hard work perfume (due to sweat)?
 
6)      How many people will entertain their relatives (if they are poor and smell bad due to constant hard work and with no leisure of a shower)?
 
Got some idea what is caste? Being rich and poor is the caste. Poor is never respected because he has no skill, even if he has skill he has to prove it before demanding any respect.

Being a poor is the worst caste.
 

Why in India caste system prevails. Reason, people are doing odd things are poor. They have no access to good schools, good food, security, roads and good hospitals. Indian politician have bring down the status of Indian citizens. Instead of making people rich, Indian politician devised strategy to keep prices artificially down.

While other countries were letting competition, Indian govt. controlled everything because they want to feel more important.  How many Indian politicians ask Indians to work hard and said that Indians need to work hard in order to achieve something.

We are never taught that to buy best things, we have to pay something. We are not told; quality is best and never comes cheap. We are always told quantity matters. We are taught so many courses but not perfection in one. Instead of hiring the best, Indian govt. say hire on basis of caste. Instead of telling kids that nothing comes free.

We are told that govt. is bringing schemes full of free electricity, free water and jobs, promotion for non-eligible as a gift if they win election next time. We are corrupted to such an extent that when we go to passport office, the first thing we try to find is a person who can take us to break the line.  When we go to temple, we try to break the line and try to go ahead.  We are corrupted to such an extent that we give money to God so that he/she fulfill our desires.

Sorry, I deviated from caste system to corruption. Basically caste system and corruption are same. Caste system is alive because of the corruption. Indian has a 40% population of dalit (people who are doing odd works). If you tell these 40% that you have reserved seats in education, jobs and even in promotion they will vote for you. If you tell that there is also reservation on basis of religion minority, you will get again votes and you can win election. When you win election, you do corruption because you have given some kind of corruption to the people, so you want to take something back.

Just look at those parties you give free loads to people like free electricity, free water , free jobs, free promotions are the party full of criminals and uneducated politician.

After all, an educated politician will never try to give packages full of corruption. But thanks to the uneducated and criminals politicians, educated people have also started using these kinds of cards.   Now back to the caste system, in old time it was very hard to change the jobs and get education (as in all parts of the world). During the beginning of 20th century, education was accessible to all which lead to change in profession giving the way to kids of poor to rise with hard work

But after independence, India got stuck in a society where instead of lowering the hatred between poor and rich, instead of providing them skill. Politician started harvesting the hatred in poor (with no skill for survival) towards rich (one having some skill for survival).

They started telling them that they are poor because of the wrong doings of the ancestors of general category. They remind them about the bad things done to them.

In earlier time before independence, there was a time when people were trying to bring equality by telling the general people that dalits are their part. Instead of this, politician find it more easy to grasp power by telling dalits that they are not part of general category, they are the suppressed one, hated one.This tactics of politician increase the hatred between the castes. Then the story begins of creating more backward caste. Instead of doing census based on region and economic condition. Indian politician started doing the census based on religion and caste. [Sanjeev: I disagree with even an economic census, but such data are an automatic part of the tax system].

Their argument was that region based on religion and economic condition based on caste. I agree but there is a huge difference between region and religion.

When I say I am Indian, it means I take pride in India but when I say I am Hindu, it means I give more importance to Hinduism (note here, Hinduism is not a religion it is more like for a people who lives in India from ancient time, by definition even the current living Muslims and Christian are also Hindus) which makes me more loyal to my religion than India.

When you say economic condition, it suggest people that caste is not important.  When people see that govt. doesn’t give any importance to any religion, they start giving no importance themselves. This happened in India, earlier people were forgetting their caste but when govt. start playing caste/religion. People start taking it seriously. Just like Germany, when people were reminded that they are true Aryan and they should hate Jews they started hating but the moment Govt.  stopped saying this people start believing they are equal.

Regarding hatred, it is very easy to acquire power through hate. People who are poor have nothing are the easy target of this. You have to put the blame of everything on someone and people easily accept this.

Why all of the youth is going away to foreign shores in search of jobs (when they are the best talented)? Why India can’t provide jobs to best? Don’t you think that if govt. passes this law of quick promotion to SC/St will lead to a situation where incompetent people will go on higher position while the hard working person will suffer? Why the best brain will like to come back? Why he will join an institute where he will be discriminated?

One more example, I find it very strange to find that for applying a job in a big research institute you have to fill your caste and religion. Why I need to fill this column?  Why they put this column and for what purpose? If I am Hindu (as defined by Govt.) does it make me less or more intelligent? If I am Brahmin, Vaishya, Kshatriya or Dalit (as defined by  Govt.) does it affects my intelligence?  Answer is NO.

I am Indian and will remain this. When I do good work in Japan, people say Indians are hard working. When I do bad work, people say Indians are bad. But when I return to India, when I did good work, they blame my ancestors and say this is due to the facilities my ancestors enjoyed. Do they know the kind of hard work I have put in all this, do they know the kind of sacrifices I have to make. Do they know the kind of time I have to put in place to achieve this? 
If I do bad things, then also I am blamed. Why this treatment for fellow citizen? Why this hatred?

This is leading us nowhere and will make us more divided and no one will want to work just because he is not appreciated.

No one will like to sacrifice anything for this country and will turn into mess.

We are already in mess, instead of competing with the world, we are lowering our standards, and instead of raising education we are making it poor.

Instead of giving roads, food and hospitals we are giving reservations which are used by rich people. Reservation in promotion will not help the dalit in remote area. It will only help the rich living in cities where there is no discrimination. I hope these thoughts may help people to understand the real problem.

Please understand that in order to remove this caste mentality, we need to raise living standard rather than giving certificates of caste and reservation. This is simple logic.

Give this model a try for 30 years and if this doesn’t work than you can bring back the existing system.  Not very difficult, if someone wants to improve India. Otherwise there is no hope for India and especially for the poor people.

Provide good schools, best schools and tighter law, instead of reservation.

You can't make any one boss without talent.

Increase talent and please spread love instead of hatred.

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A position on the concept of reservations – extract from BFN

I'm republishing this extract from BFN to support the debate I've referred to. (I've further elaborated on this issue on many occasions, but this is broadly what I still believe in):

===
In its Part XVI, our Constitution has institutionalized social inequality and inequality of opportunity, despite the claims in the Preamble to the contrary. Article 15 (1) states quite clearly, ‘The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them’. And yet, the Constitution goes off to do precisely that! On the ground presumably of social justice and of the ‘justice of yesterday’, Part XVI recognizes multiple classes of citizens, namely, the scheduled castes and tribes and the rest of us – each being treated quite differently from the other through affirmative action such as by Article 335 which enables the ‘relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation’ for such classes of citizens.
 
            The argument underlying affirmative actionis the following – that non-scheduled members of the present generation should legally relinquish their equality of opportunity in order to compensate the scheduled groups for the harm allegedly caused by the forefathers of the non-scheduled groups. This is an untenable argument. The present generation both of the scheduled and non-scheduled groups was not even born when the alleged harm took place. If the current generation of non-scheduled people have harmed ‘lower’ castes or tribes in any way, they must be punished, but individually, not collectively. This is a matter of justice, not a matter of the ‘justice of yesterday’.
 
            Ours appears to be a contract between two types of slaves. As Gandhi said, ‘A slave is a slave because he consents to slavery’.[i] One claims to have been discriminated against and hence wants compensation from people who had nothing to do with it. The other group offers to be punished for the alleged discrimination that someone else practised in the past! No one can remain free in a society where both parties violate the basic principles of accountability. This masochistic self-flagellation on the one hand, and the opportunistic beggary on the other, diminishes everyone.
 
            On a personal level, I would hate to be a member of a ‘lower caste’ or ‘tribe’ who takes advantage of a more meritorious person. It would lower me, demean me; it would reduce my sense of self-worth. Charity is anathema to able-bodied free peoples, an insult greater than no other. I would be unable to get out of a sense of deep anguish at being an able-boded person given other’s charity. Therefore I would say to such foolish ‘higher’ caste people, ‘Stop this! Stop perpetrating this mayhem of charity towards me, you slaves of injustice! Let me find my own way and own level in life through my own effort. Let me be a man. Do not treat me as a cripple’. I admire Ambedkar precisely for getting out of the stigma imposed on him by Hindus who called him a lower caste person. He joined Buddhism. Mass-scale exodus of this sort is perhaps one of the most effective ways to fix Hinduism’s flawed caste system that deeply insults virtually half its members. I would suggest an exodus to reason as an even better option.
 
            Let India become a place of respect-worthy people and not a land of cowards, each coward begging for a little ‘extra marks’ from others. If you were to call me backward I would be extremely angry. And yet today, entire groups of people seek to be labelled as backward! This is a clear sign of a great people who have lost their way. Let all men and women of India forget their social and economic past, and stand up as Indians – no less, no more. Let each person meet the great challenge of making the greatest possible contribution to society by dint of his or her determination, hard work and merit. Let the best man or woman win in every field of life in India.
 
I love the story about a young couple, Craig and Helen Elliott, who started with virtually nothing in their pockets in 1995 and have built their own farm in New Zealand which now generates 26,000 litres of milk per day. Between the two of them they milk 900 cows a day; only two of them work on the farm! And they have done this without any government assistance as well.[ii] That is the minimum standard of sheer determination that each of us must show. No more of this shameful desperation to be labelled as ‘backward’! Let us cast out all charity into the ocean! And throw the person who gives us charity far into the ocean as well. That is the only way we will grow up into humans worthy of living in a free country.
 
            Many things are deeply wrong with Part XVI of the Constitution:
  • Sociologists and anthropologists can use terms like tribes and castes, but not a government. A government only recognizes citizens. Period.
  • As already indicated, Part XVI perpetrates grave injustice by punishing people who have not, as individuals, participated in any crime.
  • By recognizing these castes and tribes in our Constitution, we have effectively frozen them forever. Our culture and society should remain free to evolve and change in any way that its people individually choose to, so long as they remain accountable for their actions. In any event, the time has come for people to move from tribal modes to a modern, individualist mode sooner rather than later.

          Affirmative action increases caste-based inequality. If the caste system would have disappeared on its own in, say, a hundred years in capitalist India, the socialist intervention of reservations will now sustain it for ever. Thus, our Constitution has made it very hard even for the best social reformers of Hinduism to do anything about the caste system now. There has never been greater awareness of one’s own caste than in today’s India. We don’t know our politicians by their views any longer, but by their caste. Perhaps even primary school children think about their caste now.

These things should be completely out of the reach of a government. A government should entirely focus on the economy, on the education of our children, on teaching them the wonders of science. The way to break the back of the invasive and insulting caste system is the following:
  • abolish reservations;
  • remove all references to any religion, tribe or caste in the Constitution;
  • review, and where possible repeal, any law in India with the words Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Jain or Sikh included in it; and
  • ban the census of India from asking us silly questions about our religion or caste. Let us only be Indians. Period. That should do.

* * *

            I am not denying the deplorable practice of caste discrimination. I strongly oppose it, it being one of my reasons for choosing not to be a Hindu (I have, in addition, many other reasons for opting out of the business of religion altogether). Nevertheless, eliminating the caste system is not a matter for a government to get involved in – it is a matter purely for social and religious reformers.
 
            Similar discrimination or stereotyping has occurred in the past in every part of the world. Ending these things needs a different approach. Even as George Washington was taking on the role of American presidency after the 1776 Declaration of Independence, he owned hundreds of slaves. Thomas Jefferson, the man to whom we owe the sentiments of the Declaration, also owned over 180 slaves; even as late as in 1824. Similarly, providing equality and adult franchise to women took a very long time coming in the USA. In other words, there has been massive discrimination in the past even in today’s relatively free societies.
 
            The lesson here is that while a government can set minimum standards and punish people if they violate these standards, the task of preparing a society to accept these standards requires social reformers to spend decades, if not generations, in preaching the message of reform. Yes, governments can set in place non-discretionary outcome standards, and they should. In the case of caste discrimination, the government can do the following two things:
  • Ensure that poverty is eliminated and all children receive education of decent quality up to their twelfth year. This will involve a total revamp of the school education system, as outlined in Chapter 6.
  • Enact an Equal Opportunity Act in order ‘to enforce everyone’s right to equality of opportunity; to eliminate, as far as possible, discrimination against people by prohibiting discrimination on the basis of various attributes’.[iii] A government can definitely control people’s behaviour, even if can’t change people’s feeling. Such a law will clarify, extend and enforce Articles 15 and 16 of our Constitution. The government would then need to build a very strong capacity to enforce this law.
            But to ask a government to do anything beyond these two is not realistic or reasonable. If a government attempts social reform, it faces the following problems:
  • Governments are not credible. Their sincerity is questionable. Members of a government are not qualified to touch our hearts and to make us change. People know that politicians are on the lookout for votes.
  • The opinions of the political class or the bureaucracy merely reflect existing social opinion. They can’t become reformers, anyway.
  • Bureaucracies established to ‘reform’ the society have no interest in eliminating the social problem, for if that problem goes away then they will lose their jobs! 
The diagram below tries to distinguish the role of government from that of social reformers.
            It is therefore up to social reformers to initiate community-based action to educate and change people’s minds and hearts. When we feel really bad about the terrible things that continue to happen in Indian society, we can try to do the following few things:
  • We can begin by setting aside, in differently coloured piggy banks – labelled separately as ‘Ending the Caste System’, etc. – all the money that we would have been otherwise willing to let the government take away from us in taxes for the purpose of social reform (say 1 per cent of our income?). Presently, this money would go towards establishing mammoth ineffective bureaucracies which are focused entirely on increasing the problem.
  • Instead of then funding the government through this 1 per cent increase in our taxes, we can get together with others who believe in similar causes and form associations to promote our chosen causes. There may already be many such associations in existence that need volunteers like us. Let us network with other like-minded people and expand India’s social capital. Let us build civil society.
  • Once we are satisfied about the quality of work of these associations, let us then break open our piggy banks and fund these associations.
We will be pleasantly surprised by participating in such associations that social causes are impacted quickly, economically and very effectively. In addition, those of us who belong to a so-called ‘high caste’ should not forget to clarify to our children that we will be equally happy if they marry a person from a social category considered by un-enlightened Indians to be ‘lower’ than ours –as long as the person they choose is of good character. We can also use non-caste titles in our names. Finally, we can place the entire offending religion on notice and publicly declare that we will abandon it if it refuses to reform.
 
There is another problem brewing on the horizon. In addition to caste-based affirmative action, gender-based affirmative action is gathering momentum, namely, reservation of seats for women in elected bodies. This, once again, is primarily a matter for social reformers to deal with. There can never be any justification for a government to legislate quotas for women. Reservations for women (or any other group) in Parliament or any other elected body goes against equality of opportunity. Sweden doesn’t have any reservation of seats for women, but its political parties have a voluntary norm under which 50 per cent of their candidates are women. As a result, women constitute 45 per cent of Swedish parliamentarians. The way out for India would similarly be for political parties to take the lead and not to have the government do things which are none of its business.


[i] Fisher, Louis, op. cit., p.204.

[ii] Article entitled ‘A Rich Harvest and No Handouts’, by John Dyson, Readers Digest of January 2008.

[iii] This is a paraphrase of the objective of the Victorian Government’s Equal Opportunity Act.

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Join the debate on whether there should be reservations

I chanced upon this discussion on the We DEMAND Freedom and Good Governance! Facebook group which is open to the public. Join this group and join in the debate. 

Current discussion:

Vishal Kumar Singh The middle class does not like reservations.Reservations are fundamentally wrong. But, if there is no equality of opportunity then there is no moral case against reservation. And equality of opportunity is a joke in India. In today's India it is impossible that your kid and your maid's kid are on equal footing. India needs strong policies for creating equality of opportunity and then only can politically a case be made to give away with reservations.

Rohini Khuperkar agreed.. unequal opportunities create possibility of reservations..

Yazdy Rusi Palia Vishal, how is this achieved? Who pays for it? This sounds so much like a Socialist slogan. I am at a loss. Equal opportunity, according to me is an arrangement where the opportunity is there but one has to earn it. I am not against the maids children studying with my kids but either I pay for it or arrange for a private sponsor who would bear the expenses. Certainly, you do not mean that the state bears it?

Manjit Kaur For equal opportunities some one has to pay for the other. This is quite fair in a democratic set up. Otherwise how will the society develop? There are thousands who are blessed by the properties of their ancestors and millions who are from poor families. The gap has to be bridged some where.

Yazdy Rusi Palia The question is should it be by force?

Manjit Kaur We are robbed of in Government Offices daily by force. Does any body complain????

Yazdy Rusi Palia Do two wrongs make a right Manjit?

Vishal Kumar Singh The state will bear it. Let me make explain more. We all will agree that we are all interconnected as a society. It is in our interest that we have capable people in a society. Capable people who can sell their skills to each other. Equa…

Anil Sharma Vishal, I am glad that you have made this assertion about equal opportunity. I have come to believe now that FTI would need to invest mostly into this policy area to have any realistic chance at electoral politics. This is the harsh reality of Indian society and politics in general. The problem of implementation of equal opportunity is the rampant discrimination in Indian society at every level from region, religion, caste, colour, language, gender and the list goes on.

Yazdy Rusi Palia Anil, am disappointed. This will only dilute the principle of the primacy of individual rights. As I understand, if there is a market, people will create the products necessary, in this case, quality education. The problem is government controls. Let control over education be lifted and there will be thousands of entrepreneurs who will come into the field to give quality education. 

What disappointed me most in your remark is that "I have come to believe now that FTI would need to invest in this area ——- to have any chance at electoral politics in general". In short to get a chance at electoral politics we dilute our principles of liberty? I am disappointed.

Vishal Kumar Singh Also we need to see what the situation is today. India is completely socialist today with reservation as policy completely entrenched. The only way to reverse reservation policy is to create a fair policy of equal opportunity. Even this is going to face severe resistance.

In short we need to base our actions on what the reality is today. And the reality is that we are deep into socialism and the only way out is equal opportunity framework.

Yazdy Rusi Palia Equal opportunity is completely ok. However, when you say the government creates equal opportunity, there is something wrong there. First of all we have to define what is meant by equal opportunity. 

I firmly believe that if the government walks out of education, thousands of small entrepreneurs will come into the picture. You already have the example of the number of computer institutes in every small town. There will be competition in education and the cost of education will come down and the quality will improve as soon as the government stops control of schools. As it is, people are willing to pay heavily to get their children admitted to English medium schools. Once the controls are removed there will be thousands of such schools operating from small premises. 

Equal opportunities should mean open up the schools, let there be no education department in the government and quality education will be available in plenty.

Vishal Kumar Singh Let me qualify my statement- I am not saying that state creates equal opportunity. I am saying state is the only entity that can be made responsible for creating equal opportunity. It will be perfectly alright if state follows the policy of privatizing to create equal opportunity.

The point is there is no other entity which can be made responsible for equal opportunity. Charity is okay, but is not responsibility of anyone to be charitable. You cannot demand anyone to be charitable, but state can be demanded to provide equal opportunity.

Beyond who is responsible, we all will agree that all of us deserve to have equal opportunity. We as society want every one to have a fair chance to do well. My son and my maid's son should get access to good education. There will neither be reservation for my maid's son or my son.

This is only about fairness as a system. No body is guaranteeing the outcomes with reservation. Every one gets access to good primary education and then it up to individual what he becomes.

Yazdy Rusi Palia You have now made things clear Vishal. Actually just removing government role in education will do.

Anil Sharma Palia saab, I am currently working in the education sector in a small area of UP. Let me state that for all practical purposes people have choice like never before in education sector. We did a survey in Noida, Ghaiziabad and Meerut area and within 60km radius there are more than 65 institutions that provide a degree in IT. The competition in education sector is so fierce that private schools, colleges and institutions are struggling to fill the spaces; even the best of private institutions have only about 70-75% seats filled.

But the problem is of affordability and a huge mass of children cannot afford to get to these private schools/colleges. In my village there is a private school that charges about Rs. 100 fee per month but there are lots of families that can't even afford this. By the way 99% of these kids are from lower castes. They send their kids to the govt. run primary school. One way this can be fixed is to close down the govt. run primary school and give parent the vouchers to have the choice to send their kids to private schools. A case for equal opportunity.

I hope you must have seen the Satyamev Jayte program a week or so ago on caste discrimination, here is the link if you haven't watched it: http://www.satyamevjayate.in/issue10/ 

See the story of little girls from lower castes who have to clean the toilets in school. This kills the soul. Tell me how would she get a good education without discrimination?

Palia saab, I have lived in the villages and I can say with some good experience that the problem is getting worse.ouchability – Satyamev Jayate

Yazdy Rusi Palia AS bhai, in the first sentence you state that things are better and people have lots of choices. The last two lines you claim things are getting bad to worse. I am confused Anil Sharma. 

I did watch that episode of Satyamev Jayate. It is horrifying. However, what is your point ? The one suggestion that you make is reasonable if subsidy is acceptable. The other way could be tax incentives to industry to contribute in education. 

I do not believe that these children should be humiliated by charity. If however some of the arm chair critics would spend 3 months each in the countrysides especially retired people, one could achieve a lot.

Anil Sharma Palia saab, please re-read my comments where did I say that things are better? Only that there are choices in education for people who can afford. In your previous post you mentioned that once education system has choices it will sort out the problem of equal opportunity. Sadly it hasn't. There is a role for govt to ensure equal opportunity but through private enterprise, like school voucher system.

 

And the problem that I mention that is getting worse is that of discrimination. The point about Satyamev Jayate is what you saw there is just the tip of the iceberg of problem. The real face of Indian society is too ugly. It's not only the arm chair critics who need to have a reality check of their views about India but a lot like us too.

Vishal Kumar Singh ‎Anil Sharma Indeed one needs voucher system.

I will digress and ask few questions. I thought I will send you mail but then I thought it will make sense to ask you on this forum, as this information will help others.

As you said in your village, people are not able to afford Rs 100 for child education and they are from lower caste. When you mean lower caste, are these Dalits only or they are mix of OBC , Dalits.

The reason I ask is, as I understand OBC like Yadavs in UP are a landowning class and after Mandal they have become politically strong. Do these people also cannot afford Rs 100 after so much of empowerment. 

I can understand that Dalits may not have not done well but apart from Dalits , the so called lower caste (OBC) are they really in such a bad position.

Yazdy Rusi Palia Anil Sharma, When I mentioned that if the competition is opened, I meant, let there be absolutely no controls. The controls by the government is hindering more schools coming up.

Vishal Kumar Singh ‎Yazdy Rusi Palia There was discussion on education in this group.

The fact of the matter is that education can be a costly business, if you need to attract right teachers. There is no way a school in a slum will have the kind of teachers, say in a middle class area. To set the level playing field you need to have vouchers which are priced based on the income of parents. Schools will then go in slums for wanting high priced vouchers. I think pure free markets in education will not work.

Sanjeev has written in his book BFN about negative income tax and vouchers.

Anil Sharma Vishal, first a bit on nomenclature. Dalits do not come under the caste system. The Hindu varna system excludes Dalits. They are deems so low that they are the outcasts. The lowest in varnas system are Shudras and these are the ones that make the so called lower castes. In lower castes there are just too many castes from Yadavs, Shepards, Carpenter, Kushwahas, Kurmis, Kumhars etc. and the list goes on.

Now among the Shudras or the lower castes at least in UP and Bhiar the Yadavs and Kurmis have become the dominant power. This has been more because of political patronage; a lot of Yadavs got jobs during Mulayams earlier rule especially in police force. Yadavs are not land owning class in my opinion at least not in the eastern UP.

Specifically in my village the kids who can't go to private school are mostly from Dalits and other lower castes; some are from Yadav castes as well.

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I support the anti-reservation movement – subject to equal opportunity policy

Came across this movement (below). I support it subject to there being a clear equal opportunity policy.

Reservations should be removed AFTER equal opportunity has been ensured. It is not practical, given the way the policy has been embedded into the Indian governance system, to remove reservations right away.

Ensuring equal opportunity is only possible through 100 per cent privatisation of school education and provision of school vouchers, outlined in BFN.

This issue should form part of a greater movement for liberty.

Remember, NO EXISTING PARTY will abolish reservations. But a new party that assures liberty and equal opportunity could get the mandate to abolish reservations AFTER equal opportunity has been assured.

If you are serious about this issue, please join FTI (http://freedomteam.in/)

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