31st January 2020
Tony Joseph’s book, The Early Indians, is sufficient to DEMOLISH the Hindutva ideology
I had earlier discussed Tony Joseph’s work here: Vedic Hinduism is an Afghan religion – 100 per cent proofs
Tony’s book The Early Indians confirms everything that Sanjay Sonawani has been saying. It also provides more solid evidence on a few areas which is worth noting. It does not cover the Shiva, Parvati or Ganesha issue, nor much about the varna-jati systems.
A few interesting extracts + my comments in blue. Will add more as I find time.
Four waves of migration to India
~ 65,000 years ago: The OoA migrants reach India and are faced with a robust population of archaic humans. They perhaps take both an inland sub-Himalayan route and a coastal route, to keep themselves out of the way of other Homo species in the subcontinent who dominated central and southern India, and then move across the Indian subcontinent into south-east Asia, east Asia and Australia. [This part of the migrations might yet be challenged in the future, there potentially having been other migrations from out of Africa in the past – this doesn’t mean these came to India]
7000–3000 BCE: Migration of Iranian agriculturists from the Zagros region to south Asia leads to their mixing with the descendants of the First Indians sometime during this period. Geneticists estimate the mixing to have taken place at least by 4700 BCE to 3000 BCE.
2000 BCE: Two major waves of migrations with their origin in China – after it had gone through the farming revolution and the resultant population surge – reshape south-east Asia. The first one brings Austroasiatic languages, new plants and a new variety of rice to India after 2000 BCE.
2000–1000 BCE: Multiple waves of Steppe pastoralist migrants from central Asia into south Asia, bringing Indo-European languages and new religious and cultural practices.
The main thing here is that Golwalkar’s claim that “we … positively maintain that we Hindus came into this land from nowhere, but are indigenous children of the soil always, from times immemorial and are natural masters of the country. Here we compiled our inimitable Vedas” – is PURE RUBBISH. The foundation of the Hindutva ideology is falsified. The entire edifice must necessarily crumble.
Dating the arrival of the “Aryans” to after 2000 BC
the generally accepted chronology for the spread of Indo-European languages around the world puts their arrival in south Asia only after 2000 BCE, when the Harappan Civilization was already in decline. This has been strongly supported by recent genetic studies based on ancient DNA which suggest that Steppe pastoralists, who took Indo-European languages to Europe, reached India only in the Late Harappan period, bringing with them an early version of Sanskrit and related cultural concepts and practices such as ritual sacrifices. Many of these practices and beliefs are reflected in the Vedas, especially the earliest one, the Rigveda. The newly arrived Indo-European-language speakers called themselves ‘Aryans’. What all of this means is that the Harappan Civilization had nothing to do with the ‘Aryans’ or Sanskrit or the Vedas, and was pre-‘Aryan’ or pre-Vedic.
Precise date of entry of 1800-1900 BC
The archaeologist M.K. Dhavalikar had this to say on the Rigveda being clearly post-Harappan when he discussed the issue of the horses and the Vedas:
If you are reading some novel, how will you date it? If there is mention of a mobile there, you will say it was written in the 20th century or later . . . So like that there are two markers in the Rigveda. One is the occurrence of horse. That is very important. Because that is the most favourite animal of the Aryans. It played a role in their religious beliefs also . . . Secondly, the Rigveda also talks about ‘ayas’, which clearly means copper, because when iron was discovered later, they had to coin a new word, ‘krsna ayas’ or black copper.
Now on pure archaeological evidence, domestic horse starts appearing from 1900 BCE. That is Late Harappan period, which is 1900 to 1500 BCE. So this is one fixed point – about 1900 or 1800. Iron was here in north India by 1400 to 1500 BCE. So you can safely put Rigveda to be somewhere between 2000 BCE and 1400 BCE.
The earliest Veda, in other words, postdates the Harappan Civilization.
“even the physical presence of a horse or two in the Harappan Civilization should not be surprising since there is historical record of the Harappans exporting Indian animals such as the elephant, water buffalo and the peacock to Mesopotamia, and importing a horse in return from there or elsewhere should raise no eyebrows. But that wouldn’t change the overall picture of the serious disconnect between the role the horse plays in the Rigveda and the role it plays – or rather, does not play – in Harappan archaeological record and imagery.”
No connection whatsoever between the Harappan and the early (original) Vedic religion
Vidic gods missing
The main gods and goddesses of the Rigveda – Indra, Agni, Varuna and the Asvins – find no representation in the vast repertoire of Harappan imagery. The converse is also true: the Rigveda is of no help in trying to interpret the dominant symbols and imagery of the Harappan culture – such as the ubiquitous seals that display a unicorn with what looks like a brazier or manger in front; the script; the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro and its significance; and so on.
In fact, in one instance, the contrast between the Rigvedic principles and Harappan practice is quite striking. The Rigveda denounces ‘shishna-deva’ (literal meaning: phallus god or phallus worshippers), while Harappan artefacts leave no one in doubt that phallus worship was part of its cultural repertoire.
The archaeologist R.S. Bisht, who excavated the most visually stunning Harappan site in India at Dholavira, says there is clear evidence of deliberate destruction of phallic symbols and idols both in Dholavira and other sites after the civilization declined. … the Vedas looked down upon ‘shishna-devas’ and that the lack of the horse in the Harappan Civilization is a problem in identifying this civilization as Vedic.
This further confirms Sanjay’s points about the two religions being entirely different.
Tiger is missing from the Vedas
“3. The tiger is often featured on Indus seals and sealings, but the animal is not mentioned in the Rigveda.”- citing Mahadevan’s convocation address at the Dravidian University in Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, in 2015
Horse missing in Harappa
“the lack of the horse in the Harappan Civilization is a problem in identifying this civilization as Vedic.”
Thus, key animals in Vedas are different to the ones in Harappa. The Vedic and Hindu religions are clearly distinct.
Radically different civilisations
The disconnect between the Harappan world and the world of the earliest Veda is apparent in less ideological and more mundane matters too. For example, the rest of the civilized world at the time knew of the Harappan Civilization as Meluhha; the Harappans were involved in the politics of Mesopotamia, even to the extent of taking sides in their battles; and the economic relationship between Harappa and Mesopotamia was intimate enough for the Harappans to set up colonies in places such as the Oman peninsula to facilitate trading and even mining. But these complex, sophisticated trading activities and urban relationships do not find reflection in the early Vedic corpus. The world of the Rigveda and the world that is revealed by the material culture of Harappa seem two very different universes – and this is without even bringing up the matter of the horse.
Even more proof that Hindutvas are wrong.
Dating of the endogamous system
The theory that incoming ‘Aryans’ imposed the caste system on the population when they arrived in the subcontinent has been proved wrong. … ‘The four-class (varna) system, comprised of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras, is mentioned only in the part of the Rigveda that was likely to have been composed later. The caste (jati) system of endogamous groups having specific social or occupational roles is not mentioned in the Rigveda at all and is referred to only in texts composed centuries after the Rigveda.’ – from a 2013 study titled ‘Genetic Evidence for Recent Population Mixture in India’. It was co-authored by Priya Moorjani, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Lalji Singh, David Reich.
The text suggests this could have happened in around 100 AD. – which is really odd for a Rig Vedic verse to be composed, then. But the relevant verse is an outlier and this should not be ruled out.
Sanjay’s analysis suggests that the more rigid stratification took place a little bit later. The main point about his analysis is that the varna system was invented purely for the Vedics. It was not possible to impose it on others but percolated over time as the Vedics gained political support.