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Conclusive evidence of beef eating in the proximity of Ayodhya during the late Vedic period

The following is CONCLUSIVE evidence of beef eating near Ayodhya in the later Vedic period. Source:  Indian Archaeology 1996-97 A Review. I think with this I can now personally confirm that Sankalia was right.

There is OVERWHELMING archaeological evidence of beef eating in Indus Valley Civilisation and the Vedic era. This continued till at least around the 5th century AD.

I'm sorry to disappoint the "Hindu" fanatics who claim that Muslims introduced beef eating into India. Even a CASUAL study of archaeological data over the course of two days has confirmed overwhelming evidence that beef was REGULARLY eaten in India well before Islam was even created. I can now PERSONALLY CHALLENGE anyone in India or the world to prove that the cow was always sacred in India.

This also closes the case for any political argument to prohibit cow slaughter in India.



In continuation of the previous season's work (1995-96, pp. 83-86), Excavation Branch II, New Delhi, of the Survey, under the direction of B.R. Mani, assisted by Vishnu Kant, R.K. Verma, Ajay Kumar Srivastava, B.K. Chauhan, L.S. Mamani, V.P. Verma, Y.S. Nayal, Vinod Kumar, R.S. Rana, Ajai Kumar, Virendra Pandey, T.Z. Dani, Suresh Chaudhary, D.N. Yadav and Mohan Sharma, resumed excavation at the main mound SWN-1 with the objective to know more about the lay out and settlement pattern of the site and its material culture. In all twenty-two quadrants of thirteen squares with each square measuring 10 m x 10 m were fully or partly excavated (fig. 11; pl. XXXVI).

It was observed that the early settlements of the site were located closer to the River Kuwana (Kuwano) on its left bank and with the increase of population and building activities during the Kushan period the settlement spread towards east. Although no structural remains of pre-NBPW phase could be located, structures of NBPW phase and Sunga period were mostly mud structures with floors having post-holes suggesting thatched roofs (pl. XXXVII A). Brickbats, occasionally found in heaps of debris from these levels provide evidence of some rich constructions.

Building activity increased to a great extent during the Kushan period when burnt-brick structures were erected, but this being the last period of activities at the site, the structures have been badly damaged mainly due to levelling of the lands for agricultural purposes in recent years as evident from the spread of brick debris throughout the top layers.

Three ring-wells (pls. XXXVIIB and XXXVIII) and a brick-well were found during excavations which all belong to the Kushan period. Amongst the three ring-wells, one was exposed in Qd 1 of Sq D1 cut through earlier levels with fifty-two rings, each being 13 cm to 15 cm in height with the diameter of 80 cm (fig. 12). Lime was used to seal the gaps between them and they were sunk upto the water table. The brick-well (pl. XXXIX A) was exposed in Qd 2 of E1 and Qd 3 of ZE 1 with fifty-seven courses of wedge-shaped bricks measuring 26 cm x 24 cm to 30 cm x 8 cm. These structures of Kushan period found on the eastern slope of the mound suggest existence of the residential area there. Towards north-west of this, around the highest part of the mound and to the north of the RamJanaki Temple, remains of a workshop of metal smiths was located which existed from the late levels of NBPW phase to the Kushan period. Slags, complete and broken pieces of crucibles and metal pieces of iron and copper were found besides hearths of various shapes and size in Qd 4 of Sq ZA5 (pl. XXXIX B).

Pottery as noticed during the previous year's excavation was again found with some more shapes. The pre-NBPW levels contained red ware, black slipped ware and black-and-red ware including a few sherds with white or black strokes painted over them. These types without paintings continued along with NBPW in the next phase. Ceramics of Sunga and Kushan periods were mainly red ware, both plain as well as slipped. The typical dishes and bowls of NBPW and pre-NBPW phases disappeared during Sunga and Kushan periods when incurved bowls became diagnostic type. The Kushan period red ware also included basins, cooking pots, ink-pot lids, spouted pots, sprinklers, handled pots, pans and vases.

More than six hundred and fifty antiquities were found in the form of terracotta plaques, human and animal figurines, pestles, ear-studs, toy-carts, wheels, wheel-cum-pendants, balls, dabber, net sinker, rattle, whistle, discs, tablets, stopper, stamp, ghata-and arecanut-shaped beads, bangles and other miscellaneous objects, bone point, and arrowheads, bone and ivory wheels, crucibles, stone objects, iron objects, semi-precious stone beads, glass beads, bangles and copper objects. Amongst the important antiquities, mention may be made of Mauryan and Sunga female and Yakshi figures on terracotta plaques, Sunga gaja-Lakshmi plaques, Mauryan and Sunga elephant figurines, Kushan bull, horse, a horse-rider and bird-shaped toy-carts, a hoard of one hundred and thirty-five fragmentary bone points, gold plated earring, copper antimony rods, beads, bangles and a ring with a lion figure belonging to the Maurya-Sunga times. Fifty silver and copper coins were found from different levels including the punch-marked coins, uninscribed cast copper coins, coins of Ayodhya rulers including those of Dhanadeva and Kushan coins in copper.

More than four thousand animal remains from the site were studied by U.C. Chattopadhyaya of the University of Allahabad. The animal taxa identified include Zebu, i.e., humped Indian cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), horse (Equus caballus), sheep/goat (Ovis/Capra), spotted deer (Axis axis), antelope (Antelope sp), wild boar (Sus scrofa), domestic pig (Sus scrofa cristatus), pigmy hog (Sus silvanius), dog (Canis familiaris), cat (Felis sp.), hare (Lepus sp.), common rat (Rattus rattus), bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis), tortoise (at least two species-Chitra indicus and Trionyx gangeticus) and fish of large, medium and small size, and Aves including fowl (Gallus galliformes).

The overall picture from the lowest to the uppermost levels at the site suggests a predominantly domesticated economy in which cattle bones have the largest representations. Other domesticated animals include sheep/goat, pig, dog and cat. A large specimen (a molar) of horse from layer 7 of Trench ZA3 (Quadrant 3) suggests that domesticated horse was introduced in this area. At the same time aquatic animals, like tortoise and fish, constituted an important source of human diet. The remains of bandicoot rat and common rat suggest well settled life, associated with storing grains. A few wild animals were also hunted including wild boar, pigmy hog, deer and antelope.

The fact that most of these species (excluding perhaps dog and cat) constituted items of human diet as is shown by the characteristic cut and chopping marks observed in the bones. Another important feature of faunal assemblage is the occurrence of worked bones. A number of pieces from cattle metatarsus (compact tissue) were flaked to give shape of bone tools.

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Sanjeev Sabhlok

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9 thoughts on “Conclusive evidence of beef eating in the proximity of Ayodhya during the late Vedic period
  1. Kishan

    Why are people so obsessed with beef eating? What about reports that a vegetarian diet is better for health? I think we have progressed far far further than the hunter gatherer stage where eating animal flesh was necessary for survival.
    Why did the framers of Indian constitution include cow protection in the directive principles ?

  2. Sanjeev Sabhlok

    The constitution has NO BUSINESS to include policies. Directive principles are fundamentally improper. The constitution was influenced by people like Tilak and Gandhi who were vegetarians. They wanted to impose their views on others. Fortunately the constitution did not make it a mandatory requirement.

    No, you are incorrect that vegetarian diet is healthier. A MIXED diet is required. Today most Indians are malnourished. This shortage of proteins also affects their brain development. As a result the average IQ of an Indian is 85 (= that of a moron) compared with 105 of Japanese, Jews, etc. Eating meat in moderation is a good thing. If Indians were to do so, their longevity would increase, and also the intelligence of the children of India whose brains never reach full potential.


  3. sukarna

    In vedic civilization, huge amount of cattle sheds were being maintained with large number of cows in them and that to near by human locality. And after their death, they were not burnt, rather buried inside ground after piling off their skin.

    So archeologist are getting these bones in human locality area. Finding bones does not mean that they were being eaten.

  4. Sanjeev Sabhlok

    Sorry to disappoint, Sukarna.

    Archaeologists are actually smart people. They can READILY distinguish between buried cattle and eaten cattle.

    There is NOT THE SLIGHTEST DOUBT that Indians ate cows (and practically everything else) till the Jains and Buddhists came and started opposing them.

    But don’t believe me. Please go to Deccan College museum and examine the bones  yourself. Or go to a good university’s archaeology department. And read archaeological journals yourself. Don’t trust anyone. Not even me.


  5. Vivek Garg

    Sanjeev ji ,

    Is Chiz ka koi pakka saboot toh hai nahi …Dinasaurs ke upar bhi research chal rahi hai , Lekin Paleontologists Mr Perry ne declare kar diya ki Dinosaur ke time aadmi the hi nahi …Ek nayi report aayi that Dinosaur were present during First man evolution , even upto Neolithic age ,that report of History Channel reveals that Man was also eating some kind of dinosaurs…

    With the passage of time Man become cultured ….There is nothing written that Vedic people were eating beefs ..they may be Iliterate Tribals ..Even today many So called “Junk Hindus” are eating buffaloes and negative effects of beef eating I already posted on your facebook yesterday .Even North East people are eating Cat and dogs ….

    The Moral of whole discussion is that To make people aware about scientific reason of disadvantage of Meat eating , doctors of western world and even from land where you are residing now themselves telling people “Dont eat Non-ved stuff ” it give rise to high blood pressure ,cancer and diabetes ..And Even some people were eating at that moment , it has nothing to do now

    During that period , people were more superstitious from now , Even doing Regular wars and country was under rule of Dictator Kings …Now time has changed …

    Vedas are scientifically Acclaimed books at which your own father believe ..If you doesnt get times to examine and read and to take out facts from Vedas , than its your problem ..Not of People of Majority of India ..Even I dont know what people will accept in future …I know about today ..

    All communal and Fanatic Hindus believes in today and we are against Sheading of Cow blood on this earth …India is democratic country …Come on , have election …Those who will win the election ..will apply his rule .

    You justification is totally rediculous as scientific doctor’s is concerned …To meet high protein diet Singapore Technique of Airoponics to cultivate high energy and high Protein diet can be produce ..We can take help of Our netherland and Israel friends ..8 types of Mashroom and some Special Macronutrients Vegetarian Asparagus of 32 kinds can be introduce ..Our Bali Hindus are eating high Fibres vegetable products can be introduce in India …..I have multiple ideas to make secure diet of People In India ….

    I dont know why you are always take so much side of Islamic people …May due to your peronal goals..But I can challenge everyone at every corner who ever strategically wants to hurt the feeling of HIndus of India ….

    Sanjeev , you also have shifted from articiles of reform to personal Agenda to attack on Fanatics .

    Why you are not saying against muslims who destroyed Hindu temple in Central kolkata in West Bengal and taken possession of Hindu Temple in Merrut ….

    People will definately ask question to you …Is mission of SKC is funded by some Muslim World ? What is hidden mission to target fanatic Hindus …

    Your langauge and Intention looks very similar to those of Congress ,Mulayam ,Mamta and Nitish …Please reveal the truth Sanjeev ji

    With Regards ,
    Vivek Garg

  6. sukarna

    Respected Sanjeevjee, thank you very much for your response. Would please elaborate me what logic or method these archaeologists use to distinguish between buried cattle and eaten cattle. As you have told- ‘Archaeologists are actually smart people. They can READILY distinguish between buried cattle and eaten cattle.’

    If they think of scattering of bones (because after eating one would not place the bones at one place), then again there is the chance of being mistaken. Because in those period, the fields where cattle were buried were also used for cultivating afterwards, and definitely ploughing would scatter the bones.


  7. Sanjeev Sabhlok

    Sukarna, I assume that people who spend 5 years doing a doctorate, read 100s of fat books with all scientific and other information discussed, will be able to distinguish clearely between different types of bones. Particuarly with electron microscopy and modern techniques, the truth about such things can’t escape scrutiny.

    However, don’t trust me. Don’t believe me. Please go to the Deccan College or other top-notch archaeological institution and ask these questions from the senior academicians. Also read the 100s of journal articles/books on the subject. Do let me know if you find that these people are like ordinary children who can’t distinguish simple things.


  8. Kalyan Kumar

    Mr.Sanjeev Sabhlok,

    I am convinced that a balanced vegetarian diet is definitely healthier than mixed/hardcore non veg diets in the long run. I found that personally and also with about two scores of people (friends,close accquaintances)

    Of course , we would have to totally eliminate the “now a days ” staple white rice, white flour,sugar and replace them with good old partly hulled parboiled rice /red rice , whole wheat ,millets,jaggery.

    The daily dosage of saags , garden herbs,minerals which is negligible now a days should also be increased.

    With regard to why beef was shunned gradually, i feel that it was a matter of why kill the goose which is laying golden eggs ?. The usefulness of cattle while living outweighed its worth when slaughtered and definitely not “Gaai hamari maata hai or Komaata engal kula maata”.

    It is their wish if they relish beef or anything else considered edible (animals,plants ,insects ……..) but they do not have any right to try and stuff it down unwilling throats and not expect repurcussions.
    Obiviously, i mean the lefts,the rights, the middle, the cats on the wall,the reds, the black ,the saffrons,the greens,the whites……… .

    Kalyan Kumar

  9. Sanjeev Sabhlok

    Dear Mr Kalyan Kumar, humans have not evolved to be vegetarians or drinkers of other animals’ milk. Some people in India do have lactose tolerance, but most humans don’t.

    Humans have evolved as opportunitist meat eaters and tuber/vegetable eaters. Re: beef, Chanakya was clear tha milch cows cannot be killed but once they cannot produce any more milk, they were sold into the meat market. That is the only sensible/rational position – not a crazy “belief” in the sacredness of any animal.


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