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High schools should not start before 9 am – the proof is in

Here are the results of perhaps the first major study in this area:

Starting the school day 50 minutes later has a significant positive effect on student achievement, which is roughly equivalent to raising teacher quality by one standard deviation. [Source]

Basically the finding is this:

Our results show that starting the school day later in the morning has a significant positive effect on student academic achievement. We find that when a student is randomly assigned to a first period course starting prior to 8 am, they perform significantly worse in all their courses taken on that day compared to students who are not assigned to a first period course. Importantly, we find that this negative effect diminishes the later the school day begins.

We verify that the negative start time effect is not solely driven by worse performance in the first period class. Hence, our results show that student achievement suffers from earlier start times in not only courses taken during the early morning hours, but also throughout the entire day.


Carrell, Scott E., Teny Maghakian, and James E. West. 2011. "A's from Zzzz's? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents." American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(3): 62–81.
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“Social Security is much worse than a Ponzi scheme” – continued

Continuing my earlier comments here and here, here are a few extracts from Laurence M. Vance:

Social Security is not a retirement account. It is not an insurance program. It is not a savings account. It is not an investment account. It is not a safety net. It is not a trust fund. It is not a pension plan.

Social Security is a relic from the New Deal. It is an entitlement program. It is an income-transfer scheme. It is a wealth-redistribution plan. It is the cornerstone of the welfare state. It is the largest entitlement in the federal budget. It is unconstitutional.

Social Security doesn’t need to be fixed, changed, reformed, made to work, made fiscally sound, restored, privatized, or saved. The program needs to be abolished.

Social Security is many things, but a Ponzi scheme it is not.

Social Security is funded by taxes, not donations, investments, or contributions. The taxes could be raised at any time. The taxable wage base could be raised at any time, or even eliminated. Employers who don’t properly withhold Social Security taxes face fines and imprisonment. Individual taxpayers with small businesses as sole proprietors who don’t properly withhold Social Security taxes face fines and imprisonment. Social Security benefits could be reduced at any time. Benefits could be means tested. The retirement age could be raised.

Social Security is much worse than a Ponzi scheme. It is based coercion, funded by theft, and maintained by threats of violence to person and property. At least participation in a Ponzi scheme is voluntary, and at least participants in a Ponzi scheme are free to get out once they discover they are being defrauded.

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For socialist fools one more piece of evidence

Economic Freedom of the World

Fundamental freedoms are paramount in explaining long-term economic growth. Countries that favor free choice — economic freedom and civil and political liberties — over entitlement rights are likely to achieve higher sustainable economic growth and to achieve many of the distinctive proximate characteristics of success identified by the Commission on Growth and Development (World Bank, 2008). In contrast, pursuing entitlement rights through greater coercion by the state is likely to be self-defeating in the long run.  [Source]

No more needs to be said.

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Yes, certain forms of energy ALMOST CERTAINLY travel faster than the speed of light

On 3 June 2010 I asked: Why does energy “travel” in “circles” inside an atom? And later elaborated that matter is an energy trap

Basically I've suggested that there is a form of super-high frequency energy that that travels at speeds far greater than the speed of light, and this super-energy BENDS space so extensively (makes it "circular", so to speak) that it gains the properties of matter.

There is NO MATTER in this universe. Only energy. That is my basic point.

Today, it has been confirmed that

 An international team of scientists says it has recorded sub-atomic particles travelling faster than light – a finding that could overturn one of Albert Einstein's long-accepted fundamental laws of the universe. [Source]

This is the first serious evidence I've seen that my hypothesis is likely to be correct.

In my view these "sub-atomic particles" will be found, upon further analysis, to be composed of HIGH FREQUENCY AND HIGH SPEED ENERGY. It might be impossible to "break" into the final sub-atomic particle, though, for the energy required to break that particle will exceed anything that can be created by man.


Anyone has any thoughts on this? 


Think of this as breaking the light speed barrier, a phase change. At the initiation of the Big Bang the energy was so intense that its "force" must have radiated out at a range of speeds, including those greater than the speed of light. All energy – not necessarily a single photon; could be a small bundle of energy – that was so thrust at speeds greater than light "converted" into matter (sub-atomic). The stuff that remained at speeds equal to that of light became heat and light.

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