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Francois Gautier’s fake article on Nostradamus’s “prediction” about Modi

It is a sorry state of affairs when even Times of India starts publishing fakesters like Francois Gautier (Screenshot of Pratik Sinha’s expose here) . Fortunately, looks like TOI has removed the article.

However, I’m keeping it here – below – for the public record (screenshot here). (I obtained this version from google cache, since the cache will also disappear over time). The reason for this is clear: fraudsters like Francois Gautier should be publicly pinned down.

The situation is dire. Hindutva fanatics like Gautier specialise in falsehoods and entirely re-writing history. There are just too many examples of such fakery among the RSS/BJP clan.

Fortunately, the internet also helps pin down such fakery. Great work, Pratik Sinha – who is following in the excellent footsteps of his father by keeping these scamsters honest. [My only regret – and that’s why I’ve stopped engaging with Pratik: he is a socialist like his father – and doesn’t realise the great harm he does to India through this vicious ideology].

However, it is certain that this fake article will continue circulating on Whatsapp and other social media for the next 10 years. Such is the power of BJP’s IT cell.

[And note: “Within moments of the TOI article going up, other media outlets, including Zee News published the report. – Lies take on a life of their own these days. ]

Nostradamus and India

March 28, 2017, 1:00 PM IST in Francois Gautier’s blog for TOI | Lifestyle | TOI

[Francois Gautier

François Gautier was political correspondent in South Asia for 10 years for Le Figaro, France’s largest daily. He is now the editor-in-chief of the Paris-based La Revue de l’Inde, published by Les Editions de l’Harmattan ( François has written several books on India: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, a Guru of Joy (Hay House 2009), A History of India as it Happened (Har Anand, New Delhi, 2013), Apprendre à Souffler (Hachette Marabout, 2016). Francois practices basketball, jogging, cycling, tennis & badminton. Follow him on: Facebook/francoisgautierofficial]

Very few people know that Nostradamus, the famous French astrologer & doctor of the 16th century, who foresaw Hitler’s rise, the Iraq war, or the Wall Street collapse, made quite a few predictions about India, both in old French and Latin, the language of the learned of these days.

For instance, in his Quatrain N° III.3, he predicts the tsunami of 2000:

Mars & Mercure, & l’argent ioint ensemble,
Vers le Midy extreme ficcité:
Au fond d’Asie et des Indes, on dira terre tremble,
Et la mer se levera.

It’s the line Au fond d’Asie et des Indes on dira terre tremble which tells it all: “in the depth of Asia, and India, the earth will shake and the sea will rise.

He also prophesied the rise of the ISIS & Al Qaeda, as well as India’s suffering:

(Photo courtesy: Reuters)

En Arabie naîtra un roi puissant de la loi de Mahomet,
qui dominera l’Europe et par la discorde,
la négligence française S’ouvrira un passage à Mahomet (aux arabes)
et l’Inde souffrira moult

“In Arabia, a powerful Lord of Mahomet’s law will be born,
who will dominate Europe
France’s negligence will open the door to the Arabs
And India will suffer much”.

In 2012, French scholar and Nostradamus specialist, Bamprelle de la Rochefoucault, discovered in an old trunk bought two hundred euros to an antiques dealer, old manuscripts which have been analyzed and found to be of the 15th century. There are quite a few stanzas devoted to India, which is named here as Indicus in Latin and Indes in old French.

One of them relates to a possible Indo-Pakistani nuclear war:

XXIX : Le Griffon Indes se peut aprester
Pour à l’ennemy résister,
Et renforcer bien son armée,
Autrement l’Elephant viendra
Qui d’un abord le surprendra,
Six cens et huict, mer enflammée.

“The eagle India should get ready and reinforce its army,
Otherwise the Elephant (Pakistan) will surprise her
By putting to flame its people and the sea”

But did Nostradamus see the advent of the BJP and Narendra Modi? Apparently yes:  In his IV, 50 stanza, for instance, he predicts:

Deux mil quatorze verra regner les Hindoos,
De ciel & terre tenir la Monarchie,
D’Asie forces nul ne verra peries,

“Hindus will reign from 2014 onwards
They will rule heaven and earth
Nobody will resist them in Asia”

Nostradamus is even accurate about the name of the leader of the Hindus. This stanza is in Latin:

Indus supremus gudjaratus status natus est
Patrus Theus boutiqus, studium bonus est
Namusprimum narendus est

“The supreme leader of India will be born in the state of Gujarat
His father will sell tea in a shop
His first name will be narendus (Narendra)”

He goes on to foretell Narendra Modi’s career:

Tribus gudjaratus statum princeps est
Quae stillabunt optimum est
Honestus indicus est

“He will become three times leader of Gujarat state
Where business will be at its best
And honesty will reign”

Nostradamus seems to be speaking next about Sonia Gandhi:

Alba femina indicus supremus regnus est
Improbus eius regnum decem annum est
Autem impetus narandus facere

“A white woman will rule supreme on India
Dishonesty will spread for ten years
However Narendra will fight her”

He also seems to have a clear idea about the party of Narendra Modi:

Groupus indicus hindosus
Groupus populo indicus
Regum est vingiti unus saeculum

“The political group of the Hindus
will be called the Party of the Indian people (BJP)
it will dominate India in the 21st century”

Why is the Hindu power good for India? Nostradamus explains:

Hindosus universalus doctrinum est
Misericordia populo orbis
Deus diversitas est potestatem

“Hindus have a universal doctrine
They see God in the many
And they have compassion for all”

Then, Naostradamus goes on to enunciate the goals of Narendra Modi:

Avertat lex septuaginta
opera facto unum
aedificarem domum hindosus Ramus
vivificabit Kashmirum

“Remove Article 70
Institute a Common Civil code
Build a temple to the Hindu Ram
Preserve Kashmir”

But Nostradamus has a word of warning for Mr Modi:

Maledictus Hindosus coniuriato
Narendu idealus non dabo et Hindosus
Aliter perdet potestatem

“The curse of Hindus is betrayal
Thus Narendra should not betray his ideals
And the Hindus
Or he will lose power”

But if the BJP remains faithful to its initial goals and to Hindus, then, says the French seer:

“Grandus cognitio Hindosus
en mundo scio
et salvum facere Apocalypsus”

“The knowledge of the Hindus
will spread to the world
and save humanity from apocalypse”

Translated from the French and Latin by François Gautier

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The ball is in the court of those (such as Atanu Dey) who have worked for the enemies of liberty

Some people still keep pushing me to engage with Atanu Dey.

Apparently he has drafted a new constitution for India. Well, I had proposed a new draft constitution in 2007-08 (download “online notes” here) but I don’t intend to spend too much time on it. Discussing a new constitution is not yet relevant because the time has not yet come. You need a liberal party to be in power and establish a new Constituent Assembly. That is pretty far away. All liberal effort should be spent at this moment in getting to that point. If we don’t know how to prioritise we will waste our life in futile effort.

Second, I’m told that Atanu has changed his mind about Modi. I happened to see this today on his blog:

I was a supporter of Modi because he was in my judgement better than the alternatives. Before he became the PM, he did talk about “government should not be in the business of business” and other fine sentiments. But it seems that that was just cheap talk. As it turns out, Modi is a statist — a person who believes that only the state can solve economic problems.

Modi had the mandate to make dramatic, and much needed, changes. But he did not make those changes as it would have reduced the power of the government — and therefore his power.

But this is a hoax.

Go back to what Atanu had written to me on 11 October 2013.

There are just too many issues here. Anyone with basic intelligence should have known upon reading read BJP’s manifesto that BJP was a socialist party. How could anyone claiming to be a liberal evel remotely think that Modi is liberal?

Second, Modi remains implicated in major crimes – regardless of whether the corrupt police and judicial system of India is able to (or wants to) pin him down.

Anyone who condones the mass killings of innocents under Modi’s regime and pretends that Modi was not directly responsible is delusional. How can such deluded persons help anyone, leave alone India?

I know some people who actively supported Modi but have realised their grievous mistake. They are now working with Swarna Bharat Party.

I’m happy for people who have openly realised their mistake in supporting illiberal forces, to join SBP. And then we can work together to transform India.

Let people like Dey openly declare that (1) BJP is the enemy of India. And (2) that Modi should be investigated for his role in the Gujarat riots. THEN (3) let them join Swarna Bharat Party.

Then we can talk – even work together.

The ball is not in my court.

It is in the court of those who have worked for the enemies of liberty.

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Thomas Carlyle – a comprehensively mad and dangerous enemy of liberty

Some relevant notes:


“The fundamental dogma of all brands of socialism and communism is that the market economy or capitalism is a system that hurts the vital interests of the immense majority of people for the sole benefit of a small minority of rugged individualists. It condemns the masses to progressing impoverishment. It brings about misery, slavery, oppression, degradation and exploitation of the working men, while it enriches a class of idle and useless parasites.

“This doctrine was not the work of Karl Marx. It had been developed long before Marx entered the scene. Its most successful propagators were not the Marxian authors, but such men as Carlyle and Ruskin, the British Fabians, the German professors and the American Institutionalists.” – Mises


Thomas Carlyle: The Founding Father of Fascism

Carlyle was an enemy of economics

The originator of the great man theory of history is British philosopher Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), one of the most revered thinkers of his day. He also coined the expression “dismal science” to describe the economics of his time. The economists of the day, against whom he constantly inveighed, were almost universally champions of the free market, free trade, and human rights. [ibid]

His literary output was devoted to decrying the rise of equality as a norm and calling for the restoration of a ruling class that would exercise firm and uncontested power for its own sake. In his view, some were meant to rule and others to follow. Society must be organized hierarchically lest his ideal of greatness would never again be realized. He set himself up as the prophet of despotism and the opponent of everything that was then called liberal. [ibid]

Carlyle established himself as the arch-opponent of liberalism — heaping an unrelenting and seething disdain on Smith and his disciples.And so on it goes for hundreds of pages that celebrate “great” events such as the Reign of Terror in the aftermath of the French Revolution (one of the worst holocausts then experienced). [ibid] [Sanjeev: No wonder Gandhi hated Adam Smith and approvingly read Carlyle’s history of the French Revoution]


Liberty? The true liberty of a man, you would say, consisted in
his finding out, or being forced to find out the right path, and
to walk thereon. To learn, or to be taught, what work he
actually was able for; and then, by permission, persuasion, and
even compulsion, to set about doing of the same! That is his
true blessedness, honour, ‘liberty’ and maximum of wellbeing: if
liberty be not that, I for one have small care about liberty.
You do not allow a palpable madman to leap over precipices; you
violate his liberty, you that are wise; and keep him, were it in
strait-waistcoats, away from the precipices! Every stupid, every
cowardly and foolish man is but a less palpable madman: his true
liberty were that a wiser man, that any and every wiser man,
could, by brass collars, or in whatever milder or sharper way,
lay hold of him when he was going wrong, and order and compel him
to go a little righter. [Source]  [Sanjeev: This is the most shocking “definition” of liberty I’ve come across]


But truly, as I had to remark in the meanwhile, ‘the liberty of
not being oppressed by your fellow man’ is an indispensable, yet
one of the most insignificant fractional parts of Human Liberty. [Sanjeev: there he goes, again]
No man oppresses thee, can bid thee fetch or carry, come or go,
without reason shewn. True; from all men thou art emancipated:
but from Thyself and from the Devil–? No man, wiser, unwiser,
can make thee come or go: but thy own futilities, bewilderments,
thy false appetites for Money, Windsor Georges and such like? No
man oppresses thee, O free and independent Franchiser: but does
not this stupid Porter-pot oppress thee? No Son of Adam can bid
thee come or go; but this absurd Pot of Heavy-wet, this can and
does! Thou art the thrall not of Cedric the Saxon, but of thy
own brutal appetites, and this scoured dish of liquor. And thou
pratest of thy liberty? Thou entire blockhead!  [Source]


The anti-capitalist writer Thomas Carlyle coined the phrase ‘the dismal science’ to describe the economic thought of the free market liberals. The epithet has stuck, as a catch-all phrase that seems to describe the dry, passionless arithmetic of economic inquiry. But few know what Carlyle really meant by the phrase. It first appears in his 1849 essay, ‘Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question’, which was written to support slavery in the West Indies.

Carlyle regretted that there was no room in the laws of supply and demand for forced labour on the basis of race. His essay first appeared in Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country – followed by a furious denunciation by John Stuart Mill in the next issue.[Source]


Thomas Carlyle called Macaulay vulgar, intrinsically common, the sublime of commonplace, an author without the slightest tincture of greatness or originality of any kind of superior merit. [Source]

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Gandhi was strongly influenced by the enemies of liberty: Carlyle and Ruskin

The more I read about Carlyle and Ruskin the less impressed I am about them. It is a shock to realise how deeply Gandhi was strongly influenced by them.

I’ve opened up the 100MB text file I had created of Gandhi’s complete writings (that I had created and published here), and will now spend a few blog posts studying Gandhi and these dangerous writers.


the gaol has a library which
lends books to prisoners. I borrowed some of Carlyle’s works and the
Bible. From a Chinese interpreter who used to visit the place I
borrowed a copy of the Koran in English, Huxley’s lectures, Carlyle’s
biographies of Burns, Johnson and Scott, and Bacon’s essays on civil
and moral counsel. I also had some books of my own; these included
an edition of the Gita with a commentary by Manilal Nabhubhai 2
some Tamil books, an Urdu book presented by Maulvi Saheb, the
writings of Tolstoy, Ruskin and Socrates 3
. Most of these books I either
read [for the first time] or re-read during my stay in gaol.


If I was going to serve
my full term of two months in gaol, I had intended to complete the
translation of one of Carlyle’s books and another 1
of Ruskin.


Carlyle, as cited in Gandhi’s writings


I read over 30 books during
this period, and reflected on some of them; among these, there were
books in English, Hindi, Gujarati, Sanskrit and Tamil. Notable among
the English books, I would say, were those by Tolstoy, Emerson and
Carlyle. The first two were on religious subjects. Along with these, I
also borrowed a copy of the Bible from the gaol. Tolstoy’s writings
are so good and simple that a man belonging to any religion can
profit by them. Moreover, he tries to put into practice what he
preaches, so that, by and large, they command greater confidence.
There is a forceful book by Carlyle on the French Revolution. I
realized after reading it that it is not from the white nations that India
can learn the way out of her present degradation. It is my belief that
the French people have gained nothing of value through the
Revolution. Mazzini also thought the same way. There is much
difference of opinion on this subject. We cannot enter into a
discussion on it here. I came across many instances of satyagraha even
in this history.


Christ’s Sermon on the Mount fills me with bliss
even today. Its sweet verses have even today the power to quench my
agony of soul. I can still read with love some of the writings of Carlyle
and Ruskin.


A friend recommended Carlyle’s Heroes and
Hero-warship. I read the chapter on the Hero as a prophet and learnt
of the Prophet’s greatness and bravery and austere living. [Sanjeev: This is where Gandhi formed his views about Mohammed. He did NOT read the Quran]


I read Washington Irving’s Life of
Mahomet and His Successors and Carlyle’s panegyric on the Prophet.
These books raised Muhammad in my estimation


I think there are complete sets of Carlyle’s and Ruskin’s works
in our library. If we have them send me a list of the volumes.
How many copies of the consolidated list of books do we have?
If we have more than one copy send one to me.


There are many books on the life of the Prophet. The first place
must be given to Amir Ali’s Spirit of Islam. Then there is
WashingtonIrving’s Mahomet and His Successors, a very well written
work. Carlyle’s Mahomet as Hero is also well worth reading.


I have read a good deal about
the French revolution. Carlyle’s works I read while in jail. I have great
admiration for the French people.


I read Carlyle’s History of the
French Revolution while I was in prison, and Pandit Jawaharlal has told me
something about the Russian revolution. But it is my conviction that
inasmuch as these struggles were fought with the weapon of violence they
failed to realize the democratic ideal.


EXTRACT FROM A WRITING OF THOMAS CARLYLE (from Gandhi-Kallenbach Correspondence.)

I was reading Carlyle yesturday. I copied the accompanying for
you. Is it not splendid? May you and I make it part of our lives!
With love,
Yours sincerely,

It is only with renunciation that life, properly speaking, can be said to begin.
What is this that thou hast been fretting and fuming on account of? Say in a word: Is it
not because thou art not happy? Because thee (who art a sweet gentleman) is not
sufficiently honoured, nourished, soft-bedded and lovingly cared for? Foolish soul!
What Act of Legislature was there thou shouldst be happy? A little while ago thou
hadst no right to be at all. What if thou weren’t born and predestined not to be happy,
but to be unhappy? Art thou nothing other than a vulture that flying through the
universe seeking after somewhat to eat and shrieking dolefully because carrion
enough is not given thee? Man can do without anything and instead find blessedness.
Was it not to preach forth the same Higher [Truth] that sages and martyrs have spoken
and suffered, bearing testimony through life and through death of the God-like that is
in man and how in the God-like only he has strength and freedom? Oh, thank thy
destiny for afflictions. Thankfully bear what yet remain. Thou hadst need of them.
The self in thee needed to be annihilated. By benignant fever paroxysms is life
rooting out the deep-seated chronic disease and triumphs over death.


Ruskin as cited in Gandhi’s writings

Ruskin has somewhere said that man, as an economic factor, is not be
studied simply as a machine, but has to be taken with all his mental


Gandhiji met Henry S.L. Polak also at the Joannesburg vegetarian restau-
rant. It was Polak who gave Gandhiji a copy of Ruskin’s Unto This Last . Polak
qualified himself to be an attorney at Gandhiji’s instance and joined him in his work.


ere is a greater and a nobler
ideal to work for: that of producing, as John Ruskin puts it, “as many
as possible full-breathed, bright-eyed, and happy-hearted human


Mr. Gandhi is the real proprietor of
Indian Opinion from which no profits are made and to which he has
devoted the whole of his savings. There are two Englishmen associated
with him in that work and they and several Indians have, for the sake
of the paper, reduced themselves to voluntary pauperism. The paper is
being run on Tolstoy’s and Ruskin’s lines. Its publicly declared
mission is to bring the two communities together and become an
educative medium for the Indian community.


People in the West generally hold that it is man’s duty to
promote the happiness—prosperity, that is—of the greatest number. 3

~~~3) The reference is to Bentham’s maxim of “the greatest good of the greatest
number”. Gandhiji opposed it on moral grounds; vide “The Pietersburg Claptrap”,
13-8-1904. Ruskin, too, criticized the construction of a “science” of economics on
the Newtonain model from which “social affections” had been wholly abstracted.
Ruskin argued that the greatest art or science was that which aroused “the greatest
number of the greatest ideas”.


In fact, some thoughtful
persons in the West have pointed out that it is contrary to divine law to
ursue happiness in violation of moral principles. The late John
Ruskin 1
was foremost among these. He was an Englishman of great
learning. He has written numerous books on art and crafts. He has
also written a great deal on ethical questions. One of these books, a
small one, Ruskin himself believed to be his best. It is read widely
wherever English is spoken. In the book, he has effectively countered
these arguments and shown that the well-being of the people at large
consists in conforming to the moral law.


All religions presuppose the moral law, but even if we
disregard religion as such, its observance is necessary on grounds of
common sense also. Our happiness consists in observing it. This is
what John Ruskin has established. He has opened the eyes of the
western people to this, and today, we see a large number of Europeans
modelling their conduct on his teaching. In order that Indians may
profit by his ideas, we have decided to present extracts from his book,
in a manner intelligible to Indians who do not know English.


It can be argued that Ruskin’s ideas are an elaboration of
Socrates’s. Ruskin has described vividly how one who wants to live by
Socrates’s ideas should acquit himself in the different vocations. The
summary of his work which we offer here is not really a translation. If
we translated it, the common reader might be unable to follow some
of the Biblical allusions, etc. We present therefore only the substance
of Ruskin’s work. We do not even explain what the title of the book
means, for it be understood only by a person who has read the Bible
in English.1
But since the object which the book works towards is the
welfare of all—that is, the advancement of all and not merely of the
greatest number we have entitled these articles “Sarvodaya”.


never can be that mere intellectual or mere physical strength can ever
supersede the heart-strength or, as Ruskin would say, social affections.


We saw in the three preceding chapters that the generally accept-
ed principles of economics are invalid. If acted upon, they will make
individuals and nations unhappy. The poor will become poorer and
the rich richer; neither will be any the happier for it.
Economists do not take men’s conduct into account but
VOL. 8 : 14 DECEMBER, 1907 – 22 JULY, 1908 455
———————Page 3879———————
estimate prosperity from the amount of wealth accumulated and so
conclude that the happiness of nations depends upon their wealth
alone. Hence they advocate greater accumulation of wealth through
more and more work in factories. In England and elsewhere factories
have multiplied because of the spread of these ideas. Large numbers
of men leave their farms and concentrate in cities. They give up the
pure and fresh air of the countryside and feel happy breathing the
foul air of factories. As a result, the nation grows weaker, and avarice
and immorality increase, and if someone suggests measures for
eradicating vice, the so-called wise men argue that vice cannot be
eliminated, that the ignorant cannot be educated all at once and that it
is best to let things alone. While advancing this argument, they forget
that it is the rich who are responsible for the immorality of the poor.
The wretched workers slave for them day and night so that they may
be kept supplied with their luxuries. They have not a moment to
themselves for self-improvement. Thinking about the rich, they also
want to be rich. When they fail in this, they become angry and
resentful. They then forget themselves [in their anger], and having
failed to gather wealth by honest means, turn in desperation to fraud.
Both wealth and labour are thus wasted, else they are utilized for
promoting fraud.
Labour, in the real sense of the term, is that which produces use-
ful articles. Useful articles are those which support human life. Suppo-
rting human life means provision of food, clothing, etc., so as to
enable men to live a moral life and to do good while they live. For this
purpose, large-scale industrial undertakings would appear to be use-
less. To seek to acquire wealth by establishing big factories is likely to
lead to sin. Many people amass wealth but few make good use of it. If
the making of money is likely to lead a nation to its destruction, that
money is useless. On the contrary, present-day capitalists are respon-
sible for widespread and unjust wars. Most of the wars of our times
spring from greed for money.
We hear people say that it is impossible to educate others so as
to improve them, and the best course would be to live as well as one
could and accumulate wealth. Those he hold these views show little
concern for ethical principles. For the person who values ethical prin-
ciples and does not yield to avarice has a disciplined mind; he does
not tray from the right path, and influences others merely by his exa-
mple. If the individuals who constitute a nation do not observe moral
principles of conduct how can the nation become moral? If we behave
as we choose and then point the accusing finger at an errant neigh-
bour, how can the result [of our actions] be good?
We thus see that money no more than a means which may make
———————Page 3880———————
for happiness or misery. In the hands of a good man, it can be used
for cultivating land and raising crops. Cultivators will find conten-
tment in innocent labour and the nation will be happy. In the hands of
bad men, it is used for the production, say, of gun-powder and brin-
ging utter ruin on the people. Both those who manufacture gun-
powder and those who fall victims to it suffer in consequence. We thus
see that there is no wealth besides life. That nation is wealthy Which is
moral. This not the time for self-indulgence. Everyone must work
according to his ability. As we saw in the illustrations earlier, if one
man remains idle another has to labour twice as hard. 1
This is at the
root of the starvation prevalent in England. There are men who do
little useful work themselves because of the wealth that has accumu-
lated in their hands, and so force others to labour for them. This kind
of labour, being unproductive, is not beneficial to the worker. In con-
sequence, the income suffers diminution. Though all men appear to
be employed, we find on closer scrutiny that a large number are idle
perforce. Moreover, envy is aroused, discontent takes root and, in the
end, the rich and the poor, the employer and the workman violate the
bounds of decency [in their mutual relations]. As the cat and the
mouse are always at variance with each other, so the rich and the poor,
the employer and the workman become hostile to one another, and
man, ceasing to be man, is reduced to the level of beasts.
Our summary of the great Ruskin’s book is now concluded.
Though some may have been bored by it, we advise those who have
read the articles once to read them again. It will be too much to expect
that all the readers of Indian Opinion will ponder over them and act
on them. But even if a law readers make a careful study of the sum-
mary and grasp the central idea, we shall deem our labour to have
been amply rewarded. Even if that does not happen, the reward [of
labour], as Ruskin says in the last chapter, consists in having done
one’s duty and that should satisfy one.
What Ruskin wrote for his countrymen, the British, is a thousand
times more applicable to Indians. New ideas are spreading in India.
The advent of a new spirit among the young who have received
western education is of course to be welcomed. But the outcome will
be beneficial only if that spirit is canalized properly; if it is not, it is
bound to be harmful. From one side we hear the cry for swarajya;
from another, for the quick accumulation of wealth by setting up
factories like those in Britain.
Vide “Sarvodaya [-VI]”, 20-6-1908


Just as we cannot achieve real swarajya, by following the path of
evil—that is by killing the British—so also will it not be possible for us
to achieve it by establishing big factories in India. Accumulation of
gold and silver will not bring swarajya. This has been convincingly
proved by Ruskin.


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Some details about the government-owned Singaporean education system which produces superlative results

We saw key points regarding Singaporean education system here:

in Singapore meritocracy reigns all the way down the system. Teachers, for instance, need to have finished in the top third of their class (as they do in Finland and South Korea, which also shine in the education rankings). Headmasters are often appointed in their 30s and rewarded with merit pay if they do well but moved on quickly if their schools underperform. Tests are endemic.  [source]

Here’s some more detail – from an OECD report. The question I’m trying to resolve is how PRECISELY does Singapore manage incentives in a manner to get stupendously high quality outcomes in many fields, despite government ownership. They have clearly mastered Chanakya’s Arthashastra.


Singapore has developed a comprehensive system for selecting, training, compensating and developing teachers and principals, thereby creating tremendous capacity at the point of education delivery. Key elements of that system are described below:

  • Recruitment: Prospective teachers are carefully selected from the top one-third of the secondary school graduating class, by panels that include current principals. Strong academic ability is essential, as is commitment to the profession and to serving diverse student bodies. Prospective teachers receive a monthly stipend that is competitive with the monthly salary for fresh graduates in other fields. They must commit to teaching for at least three years. interest in teaching is seeded early through teaching internships for high school students; there is also a system for mid-career entry, which is a way of bringing real-world experience to students.
  • Training: All teachers receive training in the Singapore curriculum at the National institute of Education (NiE) at Nanyang Technological university. They take either a diploma or a degree course depending on their level of education at entry. There is a close working relationship between NiE and the schools, where all new teachers are mentored for the first few years. As NiE’s primary purpose is training all Singapore teachers, there are no divisions between arts and sciences and education faculties. Thus, according to Lee Sing Kong, the conflicting priorities that plague many Western teacher education programmes are less significant and there is a stronger focus on pedagogical content. NiE has put in place a matrix organisational structure whereby programme offices (g. office for Teacher Education) liaise with individual academic groups in drawing up initial teacher training programmes. This means that these programmes are designed with the teacher in mind, rather than to suit the interests of the various academic departments. As such, there is a stronger focus on pedagogical content and greater synergies among modules within each programme.
  • Compensation: The ministry of Education keeps a close watch on occupational starting salaries and adjusts the salaries for new teachers to ensure that teaching as seen as equally attractive as other occupations for new graduates. Teacher salaries do not increase as much over time as those in private sector jobs, but there are many other career opportunities within education for teachers. Teaching is also regarded as a 12-month position. There are retention bonuses and high-performing teachers can also earn significant amounts in performance bonuses.
  • Professional development: in recognising the need for teachers to keep up with the rapid changes occurring in the world and to be able to constantly improve their practice, they are entitled to 100 hours of professional development per year. This may be undertaken in several ways. courses at the National institute of Education focus on subject matter and pedagogical knowledge and lead towards higher degrees or advanced diplomas. Much professional development is school-based, led by staff developers. Their job is to identify teaching-based problems in a school, for example, with a group’s mathematics performance; or to introduce new practices such as project-based learning or new uses of icT. Each school also has a fund through which it can support teacher growth, including developing fresh perspectives by going abroad to learn about aspects of education in other countries. Teacher networks and professional learning communities encourage peer-to-peer learning and the Academy of Singapore Teachers, was opened in September 2010 to further encourage teachers to continuously share best practices.
  • Performance appraisal: Like every other profession in Singapore, teachers’ performance is appraised annually by a number of people and against 16 different competencies. included in this Enhanced Performance Management System is teachers’ contribution to the academic and character development of the students in their charge, their collaboration with parents and community groups, and their contribution to their colleagues and the school as a whole. Teachers who do outstanding work receive a bonus from the school’s bonus pool. This individual appraisal system sits within the context of great attention to the school’s overall plan for educational excellence, since all students in Singapore have multiple teachers, even in primary school.
  • Career development: Throughout Singapore, talent is identified and nurtured rather than being left to chance. After three years of teaching, teachers are assessed annually to see which of three career paths would best suit them – master teacher, specialist in curriculum or research or school leader. Each path has salary increments. Teachers with potential as school leaders are moved to middle management teams and receive training to prepare them for their new roles. Middle managers’ performance is assessed for their potential to become vice principals, and later, principals. Each stage involves a range of experience and training to prepare candidates for school leadership and innovation.
  • Leadership selection and training: Singapore has a clear understanding that high-quality teaching and strong school performance require effective leaders. Poor quality leadership is a key factor in teacher attrition in many countries (Ng, 2008). Singapore’s approach to leadership is modelled on that found in large corporations. The key is not just the training programme, but the whole approach to identifying and developing talent. This differs from the US or UK approach, for example, in which a teacher can apply to train as a principal or school head, and then apply for a position in a school. in Singapore, young teachers are continuously assessed for their leadership potential and given opportunities to demonstrate and learn, for example, by serving on committees, then being promoted to head of department at a relatively young age. Some are transferred to the ministry for a period. After these experiences are monitored, potential principals are selected for interviews and go through leadership situational exercises. if they pass these, then they go to NiE for six months of executive leadership training, with their salaries paid. The process is comprehensive and intensive and includes an international study trip and a project on school innovation. Only 35 people per year are selected for the executive leadership training. Asked why Singapore uses the “select then train” rather than the “train then select” model, Professor Lee Sing Kong said that while the US/UK approach is feasible, it carries a higher risk. Singapore is very confident that they consistently have the best possible leaders for their schools and that there is a wide range of inputs into their selection. Principals are transferred between schools periodically as part of Singapore’s continuous improvement strategy.

By putting its energy in the front end of recruiting high-quality people and giving them good training and continuing support, Singapore does not have the massive problems of attrition and persistently ineffective teachers and principals that plague many systems around the world. Teaching has developed into a competitive and well-regarded occupation. it is also now considered to be an honour to be a teacher in Singapore.


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